25 April 1915-9 January 1916


The action at Gallipoli was an Allied attempt to open another front to keep pressure off of the troops in Europe and to open the Dardanelles. The British and French navies feinted attacks at Bulair and Besika Bay, while the real landings happened at Kum Kale, ANZAC Cove, and Cape Helles after a morning of naval bombardment. The ANZAC troops landed a mile north of the original beach, and the new landing spot had steep slopes that led up to ridges and gullies. After an unopposed landing, they started up the slopes, but by early afternoon the ANZAC troops were under attack by the Turkish and had only reached a mile and a half inland. At three of the beaches at Cape Helles, the British troops had little opposition, and were soon established ashore. However, two beaches were heavily fortified and the British met heavy resistance. By evening, the surviving troops managed to drive the Turkish troops from the defences. The French had little opposition at Kum Kale.

From the beginning of May until the end of July, the ANZAC forces inflicted heavy losses on the Turks and the British and French advanced slowly with heavy losses. The August Plan was a planned assault on the peak Chunuk Bair, which was undefended. The ANZAC garrison was reinforced with 20,000 troops, and on the night of the 6-7th August, the troops captured Lone Pine and were close to capturing Chunuk Bair. However, due to exhaustion of the troops, the ANZAC forces paused at the foot of the peak. The attempt ended in failure when troops were pushed from hills.

To break the stalemate in Gallipoli, Gen Sir Ian Hamilton decided on another amphibious assault at Suvla, north of ANZAC cove. The troops landed and captured a bridgehead, but the Turkish troops attacked and the British troops could move no further. This created a third static group of landings at Cape Helles and eventually led to the replacement of Gen Hamilton with Gen Sir Charles Monro and the eventual evacuation of troops.

The evacuation took place from 28 December 1915 to 8 January 1916. The Turkish forces did not realise that a full evacuation was taking place. At the end of the campaign, there were an estimated 300,000 Turkish casualties and 265,000 Allied casualties..

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